Understanding Muramidase:

Muramidase, known as lysozyme, is a fundamental enzyme in bodily fluids such as saliva, tears, and egg whites. It plays a crucial role in the immune system by acting as an antibacterial agent. This enzyme is also found in significant quantities in human milk and mucus. In the scientific community, muramidase is classified under the Enzyme Commission number EC

Muramidase Function:

Muramidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan is a critical component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. Additionally, muramidase hydrolyzes the linkages between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. This enzymatic activity results in the breakdown of bacterial cell walls, ultimately leading to the lysis (destruction) of the bacteria. By compromising the structural integrity of the bacterial cell walls, muramidase effectively causes the cells to burst and die. This action is crucial in preventing bacterial infections and maintaining the overall health of an organism. Muramidase's ability to target and dismantle the peptidoglycan layer makes it an essential part of the innate immune system, providing a first line of defense against invading pathogens.

Muramidase in Immune Defense

As an antimicrobial enzyme, muramidase is integral to the body's defense mechanisms. It is produced by animals and humans and is present in various secretions such as tears, saliva, and mucus. These secretions form part of the body's barrier protection, helping to keep potential infections at bay. The enzyme is also found in high concentrations in egg whites, which helps protect the developing embryo from bacterial infections.

Stability and Activity

Hen egg-white lysozyme, a well-studied form of muramidase, is known for its thermal stability, with a melting point of 72 °C at pH 5.0. This stability enables it to maintain activity across a broad pH range (6-9), making it effective in various environmental conditions.

Applications in Food and Pharmaceuticals

Due to its robust antibacterial properties, muramidase is widely used in food preservation, extending the shelf life of products by inhibiting bacterial growth. The pharmaceutical industry incorporates it into treatments and medications to combat bacterial infections. Its applications also extend to agriculture, where it helps prevent bacterial contamination in animal feed and agricultural products. Furthermore, biotechnology uses muramidase to develop antibacterial coatings and materials, contributing to advancements in medical and industrial fields.

Future Directions and Research

Ongoing research is focused on further exploring muramidase's potential in various applications. Scientists are investigating new methods to enhance antibacterial efficacy, stability, and applicability. This includes studies on its interaction with different substrates, its potential role in treating antibiotic-resistant infections, and its use in developing novel therapeutic agents. The promising results from these studies highlight muramidase's potential to become an even more valuable tool in health care and industry.


Muramidase product range:


API Lysozyme
API LYSOZYME hydrochloride is our highest purity pharmaceutical-grade LYSOZYME. Produced from hen egg-white following stringent cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice) guidelines.
Inovapure®, our proprietary Lysozyme feed brand, offers potent antimicrobial benefits for livestock and pet formulations.
LYSOBIER® kills beer spoilers while preserving the natural and fresh integrity of craft, unpasteurized and special brews.
Protect your cheese naturally, with LYSOLAC®. LYSOLAC® contains lysozyme, a safe and natural anti-bacterial enzyme.
Lysovin: Master the Art of Winemaking! Tailor every aspect of fermentation for optimal taste, aroma, and fewer sulfites. Craft perfection in every bottle.
Lysozyme Hydrochloride
A remarkable natural antimicrobial and antiviral enzyme. Its potent bacteriolytic, bacteriostatic, and bactericidal action has made LYSOZYME highly valued across broad industries.
At Bioseutica® we are committed to providing the highest quality ingredients that help people to live well and feel better. As the leading global player in egg-derived proteins and enzymes, we know how to enrich nature’s very best from eggs.