Different Analytical Approaches in Assessing Antibacterial Activity and the Purity of Commercial Lysozyme Preparations for Dairy Application
Hen egg-white lysozyme (LSZ) is currently used in the food industry to limit the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria spoilage in the production of wine and beer, and to inhibit butyric acid fermentation in hard and extra hard cheeses (late blowing) caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the enzyme activity in commercial preparations correlates to the enzyme concentration and can be affected by the presence of process-related impurities. Different analytical approaches, including turbidimetric assay, SDS-PAGE and HPLC were used to analyse 17 commercial preparations of LSZ marketed in different countries. The HPLC method adopted by ISO allowed the true LSZ concentration to be determined with accuracy. The turbidimetric assay was the most suitable method to evaluate LSZ activity, whereas SDS-PAGE allowed the presence of other egg proteins, which are potential allergens, to be detected. The analytical results showed that the purity of commercially available enzyme preparations can vary significantly, and evidenced the effectiveness of combining different analytical approaches in this type of control.